United Nations is an institutionalized effort to avert possible conflicts and facilitate cooperation among member nations.The importance of an apex inter-governmental organisation is closely associated with the pace of globalizing world.
So far, it has already proved its mettle as a catalyst to steer the global ambitions in the desired direction.
This blog “A General outline of the United Nations” is a better resources for you to know more about UN.
Structure and composition of United nations
UN is the direct product of two devastating World Wars which shook the entire global community.Though it was emerged out of compulsion, it is proving great resource. Its machinery is too vast in accordance with the ambit of functions.
UN has six principal organs and more than fifteen specialized agencies to carry out its daily affairs.
One thing we must not forget that UN isn’t a global government but an intergovernmental forum to discuss and resolve issues of global importance.
So, to function in that manner, General Assembly is the representing, as well as policy making body of all the independent members.
Being the representing body, it has various powers and functions to negotiate with global issues. These are like:-
•The appointment of secretary general of united nations for five years term.
•To oversee the UN budget.
•The appointment of the non-permanent members to the security council for two years term.
•To give recommendations as a general assembly resolutions in regarding to various confronting issues.
The member strength of General Assembly is around 193. UN Headquarter is at the New York City.
Security Council is the defence wing of the UN. It has great powers to ensure international peace and security.
Security Council has five permanent members and ten elected members by general assembly for the two years term. Five members possess veto powers, whereas other elected don’t have such veto powers.
Admission of new members to UN and to approve the changes in the UN charter are fall in the ambit of power and functions of security council.
Peace keeping operation to avert conflicts or violence in the world is also a vital function that security council carried out effectively.
It also exercise the power to impose international sanctions on the members in question to influence their’s behaviour.
Security Council can support the military actions through binding resolutions to safeguard peace.
It is also known as powerhouse of UN.
The economic and social council Of UN
Social and economic council is the developmental organ of UN. As I mentioned earlier that the motive of UN is to encourage developmental endeavours to free the masses from the vicious cycle of ignorance and poverty.
Major function is to discuss and address Socio-economic issues, confronting global community. It works with the various NGOs to provide required pace for development activities.
It has 54 members elected by general assembly for overlapping three years term.
Apart from this, it has fifteen specialized agencies to provide required inputs in the operations.
Out of fifteen specialized agencies here are some:-
•FAO, IMF, ILO, UNESCO, WHO, UNIDO, WMO, and World Bank.
After the devastating second World War, there were a lot of disputed territories in the world. Theirs impartial administration in the interest of their inhabitants was utmost important. For that purpose, Trusteeship council came into existence.
Its power and functions are to administer disputed territories until the involved parties agree for a workable solutions.
It suspended its operations in 1994.So,has no active status now.
International court of justice.
International court of justice is also a principal organ of UN. It is the justice delivering UN body. The major function of ICJ is to settle disputes among member states.Apart from this, it also performs advisory function for UN.
Court has a panel of fifteen judges with nine years term.Judges are elected not appointed by the both General Assembly and security council. Unlike other organs, it is the only body which is located outside of New York City. In the peace palace of The Hague, Netherlands,its headquarter is located.
Its official languages are English and French. All members of UN are the party to the UN statute.
In the following three issues,it has jurisdiction.
The last principal organ of UN is General Secretary. It is also called the chief executive officer of the UN. GS is nominated by Security Council and appointed not elected by General Assembly for five years term. It is eligible for reappointment but not for more than two terms. Presently, Antonio Guterres are the General secretary of UN.They hails from Portugal and appointed by general assembly on 13 Oct. 2016.Antonio Guterres is the 9th SG.
Being the head of the secretariat, he is obliged to follow the decisions taken by the UN.
According to the US stalwart Franklin D. Roosevelt ,UN general secretary should be like a “world moderator”.But, there is no specific definition, prescribed in the UN charter.
It acts as a catalyst by bringing vital issues in the light of attention so that members could consider for solution.
In the present non-polar world, the role of SG is gaining importance.
UN is too vast to cover. I have tried my level best to provide a general outline.The rationale behind the outline is clear that in the rapidly globalizing world, everyone should know something about the apex organisation, serving global interests.