Subordinating conjunctions Before and after

Subordinating conjunctions Before and after are conjunctions of time, used to introduce adverb clause of time to express sequence in two events. Clause introduced by “Before” describes later action; whereas, clause introduced by “After” describes earlier period of action.

Examples and use of “After” conjunction of time

“After” conjunction is used to connect two events as per the order and the sequence of time. In such sentences, action of “Before clause” occurs earlier to the action of main clause.

  • I will water the land. (main clause)
  • After they finish the process of sowing. (times subordinating clause)

It means that I can only water when they finish the process of sowing.

  • I will ride the bike after I receive my license.

Tense used in “After subordinating clause”

  1. Future tense is generally avoided in the dependent clause.
  2. Instead, simple present is used to express future meaning.
  3. But, future tense is used in the main clause.

Examples of use of “After subordinating clause”

  • I will ride the bike after I receive my license. (future + simple present)
  • He accepts his mistake after he is convinced by the evidences. (simple present + simple present)
  • She purchased a bike after she received her salary. (simple past + simple past)
  • He invited his friends after his father had given theirs permission. (simple past + perfect past)

Examples and use of “Before” conjunction of time

“Before subordinating conjunction” is used to connect two events as per the order and the sequence between two actions. In such sentences, action of “Before clause” occurs after the action of main clause.

  • I will arrange a car before the train arrives.
  • I will arrange a car. (main clause )
  • Before the train arrives. (times clause)
  • We will leave before it starts raining.

Tense used in “before clause”

  1. Future tense is generally avoided in the dependent clause.
  2. Instead, simple present is used to express future meaning.
  3. But, future tense is used in the main clause.

Examples of “Before subordinating clause”

  • I will arrange a car before the train arrives. (future + simple present)
  • He exercises in the morning before he leaves for office. (simple present + simple present )
  • She had planned well before they left for forest safari. (perfect past + simple past)

Now, it is clear that subordinating conjunctions “Before and after” are used to indicate different period of time of performed actions.

Functions of personal pronouns

Understanding no sooner than