We cannot be the mere sympathizers for the unabated loss of prized endowments of pristine nature. Nowadays, the degree of vulnerability of precious species is unimaginable. Hence, we have to go for constructive yet workable measures for loss of biodiversity.
Workable measures to preserve biodiversity
Here are the most potential and workable measures for loss of biodiversity in India.
1. Management of information about known and unknown species
We need to accelerate our on-going systematic work to identify and name our undiscovered or unexplored species which are in the far-flunged, rugged mountainous region.
At the same time, need to collect authentic data about the number and nature of various species from our all 10 bio-geographical regions.
This will help us to ensure their balanced use and conservation.
Biological regions in India
- Trans Himalayan
- Western Ghats
- Deccan Peninsula
- Gangetic plain,
- Northeast India
Identification and their sequencing is essential to give priority in protection and conservation of such as vulnerable, critically endangered, and near extinct, on the basis of red data book.
2. Role of advanced technology in conservative measures
So far, we have declared many programs like sanctuaries, national parks and biospheres to protect endangered species and theirs habitat.
But, even after stringent laws, we noticed many news about poaching, and other incidents which caused death for many fragile critically endangered species like big Cats, Tiger, Panther and herbivores like Deer, Elephants etc.
Therefore, technological interferences are very essential in monitoring, supervision for critically endangered species to arrest or control such incidents.
3. Contribution from tribals’ community for protection and conservation of biodiversity
Having been recognized as the son of soil, the forest dwelling scheduled tribes are very instrumental in conservation and protection of fragile species and theirs richness.
Tribal participation, instead of evacuation is utmost essential as they are the best knowledgeable about forests and theirs wildlife.
4. Water harvesting in the parched and ecologically fragile regions
Water is the most effective, powerful factor in protecting and preserving species diversity. For this purpose, water conservation measures must be empowered or accelerated in the drought prone or parched areas.
Whenever there is water scarcity, they will either die down or migrate in other areas with the help of various employment schemes including MGNAREGA, we can achieve both goal, conservation and regeneration of species.
5. Replacement of faulty agricultural practices
Today, we, out of the several thousand species of edible plants, less than 20 plant species are cultivated to produce about 58 p.c. of the world’s food.
Wheat, corn and rice the three major carbohydrate crops yield nearly two-third of food sustaining the human population. Fats, oils and fibres etc. are other uses for which more and more new species need to be investigated.
For this purpose, we need to suggest and educate our farming community by providing certain incentives.
In this field, we should assign greater role for our agricultural universities to educate farmers about the negative impacts of “Monoculture.”
6. To control the over-exploitation on the name of medicines
Current over-exploitation of substances with therapeutic properties is a great concern. But, it is essential. We know that growing adverse climatic conditions are proliferating many diseases.
For this, we need to augment the productivity of such species and provide guidelines for just or balanced use. Statistic reveals that our 25 p.c. of drugs in the pharmacy are derived from a mere 120 species of plants.
Moreover, by making plants and animals symbols of national pride and cultural heritage, we can also protect the species diversity.
7. Environmental literacy for all
Apart from this, spreading awareness about vegetarian diet and its importance will prove useful in controlling diseases.
Environmental illiteracy is a big cause of concern in our country despite environmental education. This is the gray area for improvement.
8. Integrated pest, nutrition management programs
Excessive use of chemical pesticides should be minimized. Use of pesticides may cause a large numbers of species either die down or become fragmented. Hence, natural pest control might prove beneficial alternative.
By introducing integrated pest, nutrient management programs, we can save large number of fragile ecosystems and microorganism necessary for plants’ growth.
9. Strict regulations for introducing Invasive species in ecologically sensitive regions
We need to impose reasonable limits on the introduction of exotic or alien species because these might invade native species. Invasive species are considered second only to habitat destruction as a major cause of extinction of species.
10. Cooperation with global community in conservation of biodiversity
International co-operation is very essential in these endeavours. Through both means negotiations and actions, we must strive to push our cause further.
Mere-non binding conventions will not work. Therefore, need is to be done legally binding principle