While making indirect speech of Assertive Sentences, there are certain rules need to be understood carefully. Among them, change of tense and pronouns are very vital. Here, I’m going to explain the indirect speech of assertive sentence with object or without.
Rules of making indirect speech of assertive sentence
Before to begin understanding about the process of indirect speech, take a look at the basic of direct and indirect speech in terms of reporting and reported speech.
1. Reporting speech Vs Reported speech
There are two parts of ‘Direct speech.’ One is with quotation marks and other is without quotation marks.
Within quotation marks, we call it speaker’s words or “Reported Speech”; whereas, without quotation marks, we call it “Reporting part”.
2. Change in tense in making indirect speech
As per the rules, reported or speaker’s words are changed according to the tense of the reporting verb.
If there is present or future tense, then no need to change reported speech. But, in case of, past tense, change in the reported speech is essential.
3. Indirect speech with object or without object
In the same manner, the change in the reporting verb depends on the “Object of the Reporting Verb.”
When there is object with reporting verb, then the verb is changed in ‘Tells or Told’ in the indirect speech according to the tense of reporting verb in direct speech.
4. Examples with object or without object
Here, I try to elaborate the form of assertive sentences in indirect speech with “Object of reporting verb or without Object.” First of all, let’s see without object.
- Teacher says, “You are not studying properly.”
In this example, object of reporting verb is absent.
Second, there is present tense in the reporting part.
Therefore, sentence in the indirect speech would be like:–
- Teacher says that they are not studying properly. With past tense, it would be in the following way.
- Teacher said that they were not studying properly.
5.Indirect speech of assertive sentence with object
- Teacher says to students, “You are not studying properly.”
This example is in the present tense. So, the form of indirect speech would be like:-
- Teacher tells that they are not studying properly.
In this sentence, I have taken “Tells” because of the “Object” of reporting verb. In case of past tense, we take past form according to the direct speech.
- Teacher told that they are not studying properly.
6. Examples with object of reporting verb
- He says to them,” You will be selected.”
- He tells them that they would be selected.
- He said to them,” You will be selected.”
- He told them that they would be selected.
- Tom says to him, “You deceive me.”
- Tom tells him that he deceive him.
- Tom said to him, “You deceive me.”
- Tom told him that he deceived him.
Apart from this, other reporting verbs are also used like – declare, reply, state, confess, etc.
Short summary of indirect speech of assertive sentence…
While making indirect speech of assertive sentences, you need to consider four things.
First, the tense of reporting verb, as well as the tense of direct speech or reported speech.
Tense of the reporting verb has strong bearing on the tense of direct speech as the later changes according to the tense of reporting verb.
If the tense of the reporting verb is past, then the tense of the direct speech changes accordingly.
If there is simple present, then it becomes simple past, or in case of perfect present, it becomes perfect past.
Secondly, rules of pronouns that I explained earlier blogs.
The first person of the direct speech changes as per the subject of the reporting verb.
Whereas, the second person subject of the direct speech, changes according to the object of the reporting verb.
There is no need to change third person or any names.
Thirdly, the object of the reporting verb brings important changes in the form of reporting verb in indirect speech.
If there is object with reporting verb, then the reporting verb would be tells or told in indirect speech provided that the verb is says or said in direct speech. In the earlier paragraph, I have mentioned other verbs also.
Finally, “That” is used to replace inverted commas to join two clauses- Main clause and subordinating clauses in the reported speech. Hope, this will blog will prove useful for you.