In the previous blogs, we have learnt about the “Basic Concepts and the Rules of making Indirect Speech.” Now, I am going to explain “how to make indirect speech of Assertive Sentences.”
•As I mentioned earlier that there are two parts of ‘Direct speech.’ One is with quotation marks and other is without quotation marks.
•Within quotation marks, we call it speaker’s words or “Reported Speech”, whereas without quotation marks, we call it ‘Reporting part.’
•It is the rule that reported or speaker’s words are changed according to the tense of the reporting verb. If there is present or future tense, then no need to change reported speech. But, in case of, past tense, change in the reported speech is essential.
•In the same manner, the change in the reporting verb depends on the “Object of the Reporting Verb. ” When there is object with reporting verb, then the verb is changed in ‘Tells or Told’ in the indirect speech according to the tense of reporting verb in direct speech.
Indirect speech of assertive sentences with object or without object to reporting verb.
•Here, I try to elaborate the form of assertive sentences in indirect speech with”Object of reporting verb or without Object.” First of all, without object.
•Teacher says, “You are not studying properly. ” in this sentence, object of reporting verb is absent. Second thing is, there is present tense in the reporting part. Therefore, following sentence will be in the indirect speech:-
•Teacher says that they are not studying properly. With past tense, it would be in the following way.
•Teacher said that they were not studying properly.
Now, let’s see with “Object”
•Teacher says to students, “You are not studying properly.” This is in the present tense example. So, the form of indirect speech would be:-
•Teacher tells that they are not studying properly. In this sentence, I have taken “Tells” because of the “Object”of reporting verb. In case of past tense, we take past form according to the direct speech.
•Teacher told that they are not studying properly. Let’s see some useful examples of “Object with reporting verb.”
Examples with object of reporting verb
•He says to them,” You will be selected.”- He tells them that they would be selected.
•He said to them, ” You will be selected.”–He told them that they would be seleted.
•Tom says to him, “You deceive me.”–Tom tells him that he deceive him.
•Tom said to him, “You deceive me.”–Tom told him that he deceived him.
Apart from this, other reporting verbs are also used like -declare, reply, state, confess, etc.
Lastly, while making indirect speech of assertive sentences, you need to consider four things.
First, the tense of reporting verb, as well as the tense of direct speech or reported speech. Tense of the reporting verb has strong bearing on the tense of direct speech as the later changes according to the tense of reporting verb.
If the tense of the reporting verb is past, then the tense of the direct speech changes accordingly. Here, if there is simple present , then it becomes simple past, or in case of perfect present, it becomes perfect past.
Secondly, rules of pronouns that I explained earlier blogs. The first person of the direct speech changes as per the subject of the reporting verb.Whereas, the second person subject of the direct speech, changes according to the object of the reporting verb. There is no need to change third person or any names.
Thirdly, the object of the reporting verb brings important changes in the form of reporting verb in indirect speech. If there is object with reporting verb, then the reporting verb would be tells or told in indirect speech provided that the verb is says or said in direct speech. In the earlier paragraph, I have mentioned other verbs also.
Finally, “That” is used to relpace inverted commas to join two clauses- Main clause and subordinating clauses in the reported speech. Hope, this will blog will prove useful for you.