It is a natural instinct of human beings to have something powerful to influence the will of others. We know that there are various means to attain such powers or skills, but the most effective means is the power of persuasion. To realize this, it needs a better thought process and mastery over the key elements of argument. Let’s see the concept clarity of claim and premise as the building block of argument.
Concept of claim a key elements of argument
IN the previous blog, “How to write a better argument”I have already defined the meaning and scope of claim. Now, I am going to explain the certainty and types of claim in detail.
Claim – scope and certainty
Like scope, certainty is another characteristics of a claim. It is all about the probability of the truth of a given statement or claim. In short, in what degree the given statement asserts truth about something.
•The cyclonic condition is developing in the Indian Ocean and there is a high probability to move in the eastward direction in the coming week.
•Indonesia has received some tremors of earthquake and the chances of tsunami can’t be ruled out in the coastal regions.
•Public opinion is in favour of plastic ban. Therefore, the possibility of fresh legislation is so high in the upcoming session.
In all the examples, there is a degree of probability about cyclone, tsunami, and legislation. Such likeliness is called “Certainty.”
Both scope and certainty are essential characteristics to give more clarity about any claim. It is not only enough to express assertion about something.
Types of claim
There are two types of claim.
1. Descriptive claim
We know that the statement that asserts about something is called claim. But, the ways of assertion are different. Suppose, you are going to participate in an environment protection rally. Then, let me know what would you do. First of all, you will shortlist your ideas and slogans about environment like:-
•We should plant trees to reduce carbon dioxide.
•People shouldn’t use plastic, instead prefer cotton bags .
•Awareness campaign among illiterate people is essential.
•Social media is the best medium to spread awareness.
Whenever we express “a value judgement” about something in the statement, then it is called value claim.
But, when we speak about the certain aspects of a thing in the form of description, it becomes descriptive claim.
Argument- Premises + Conclusion.
Both premises and conclusion are the inevitable components of any argument. Premises are nothing but the reasons used to support the conclusion.
In short, it is the claim that plays the role of premises, as well as conclusion. Here, conclusion is a supported statement, whereas premises are the supporting reasons.
Claims = reasons = premises = conclusion
All are claims, but it depends on the role and functions in the argument. Clearly speaking, whenever we use claim as reasons to support a statement, it automatically becomes premises.
Claims used to support a statement called reasons, whereas supported claims are none but conclusions.
Premises which is the master elements of argument, act as a foundation for any argument.
The orderly interconnection among various reasons is very vital. The process of understanding the inter-relationship is called “Reasoning”.
Reasoning is the cornerstone of thought process or thinking. In the next blog, I will explain the mechanism of “Reasoning”.