Correct use of “By” and “With”

“By and with” prepositions are used to denote agent and instrument. “By” preposition is used to denotes agent or doer in the sentence. Whereas, “With” preposition denotes instrument. For clarity, let’s see correct use of “By and With” prepositions

Preposition meaning and definition

Grammatically, preposition is an important parts of speech, used to denotes the relationship of noun or pronoun with the rest of the words, in the sentence.

When a preposition is used with such noun or pronoun, then, it is known as preposition phrase. 

Simply, preposition phrase includes preposition and object of preposition, like, by a car, by a bus, with milk, in the morning, etc.

Types of prepositions

  1. Preposition of place — above, below, over, under, behind, in front of, at, in, on etc.
  2. Preposition of direction — to, from, over, along, across, through, up, down, into, onto, etc.
  3. Preposition of instrument — with, by.
  4. Preposition of agency – with, by.
  5. Preposition of reason — because of, on account of, for, etc.
  6. Preposition of Connection — to, of.
  7. Preposition of time — since, before, after, during, until, at, in, on etc.

Usages of preposition of agency and instument

Generally, Preposition of agency is used for a person or thing which become cause to happen something. It is also called agent or doer. Like, by a person, by bus, etc.
On the other hand, preposition of instrument is preferred to use for things used to do something. Such as, with pen, with friends, etc.

1. “By” preposition is used to denotes agent or doer in the sentence.

Similarly,  preposition “by” determines the exact position of agent or doer of the sentence.

Here are,  some examples of it.

  • A coconut is broken by a stone.
  • Our house is built by my ancestors.
  • This essay is written by a primary student.

2. “By” preposition is also used to express “means”.

  • I go to work by bicycle.
  • People in India usually travel by train.
  • Long distance cannot be crossed by bus.

3. “With” preposition is used for instrument

Furthermore, preposition “with” indicates the position of instrument in the sentence.

Some examples of preposition “with”:

  • He is writing with his fountain pen.
  • She is hitting a ball with a bat made of english willow.
  • I usually drink water with my bottle.
  • The tree was cut by a woodcutter with an axe.
  • I have decided not to go with them now onwards.

Finally, this is all about the correct use of “by” and “with” prepositions. Hope, it will help you to solve doubts and progress better.

Functions of preposition

Classification of adverbs

Correct use of present continuous tense