What does Maoist insurgency mean? Why are tribal regions becoming hotspots of Maoist activities? Who are outsiders in tribal regions of India? What is relation between Maoist penetration and tribals? If you want to know the answers of these questions about causes of naxalism in tribal regions, just continue.
“Once the Prime Minister of India said that the country’s poor should have the first right over the resources of nation. Does this highlight something negative about tribals’ situation?”
Where do Indian tribals live?
Luckily, India is fortunate to have over 100 million tribal population. Mainly, tribal population is settled specially in the hilly and forested areas of central and north eastern regions. But, it is very sparse in the fertile plains of Ganga River.
Population wise, Bhils, Gonds, Santhals, Great Andamanese, Andha, Garo, Khasi etc. which constitute major part of Indian tribal population.
Maoist insurgency in tribal regions
In the late twentieth century, on the backdrop of worst zamindari system, peasants’ aggression against local zamindars in West Bengal ignited the movement for land reforms.
Later, it took ugly form on the name of Naxal or Maoist insurgency. Today its presence is noticeable in more than eight states with considerable backwardness.
Major Causes of Maoist insurgency in tribal regions
“Clearly, it is noticeable that in last seven decades of independent India, successive governments have let tribals down on the issue of development. That is why, the disillusioned tribals fell for the temptation of Maoists and became the powerful weapon for the advancement of theirs interests”.
Reasons of tribal resentment — underdevelopment or else
Evidently, plight of tribals isn’t a hidden thing. Here, we are not going to cover them up. Nor justify our attempts to uplift them. But, to appeal to know and accept the reality of ignored and discriminated lives.
Undoubtedly, development is big reason for tribals’ resentment towards government agencies. Let it be schools, health facilities, of occupation, there is hardly any reliable means.
Surprisingly, even after the seven decades of journey, the desired, as well as deserved chunk of development is still evading them. Further, on the name of employment, we have already left them on the mercy of meagre forest produce.
Logically, in such condition, how could we blame anyone else rather than development for the misery of deserving stakeholders?
Why there is penetration of outsiders in tribal heartland?
Shrewdly, outsiders are pumping a lot of money to build hotels and guest houses to milk opportunities of eco-tourism. Undoubtedly, they are washing their hands in the boom of eco-tourism, leaving tribals as a witness.
On the name of environment, lot of money are being made through the tourism industry. On the other hand, at the same time, tribals are fighting for their survival.
Development, displacement and big cause of naxalism
Geographically, tribals are mainly found in the area of hills, plateaus and forests which are rich reservoirs of iron, bauxite and mica. Hence, since many decades, on the name of development, they are facing displacement from their own homeland.
According to news reports, ongoing agitations against the MNCs in the areas of Odisha, West Bengal and other parts proves this claim. Without ensuring the equal participation in the developmental processes, the idea inclusive growth is going to prove mere myth.
Tribals’ dispossession of land and forest rights is another important cause of naxalism
Tribals aren’t responsible for loss of biodiversity nor for pollution. In this case, blame needs to be placed on rampant urbanization, deforestation and industrialization. Unfortunately, they are being discriminated to entertain others.
As we know that, environmental legislations are taking heavy tolls in the form of tribal rights in land and forests. Finally, infuriated tribals to fight against oppression, they inclined towards the outside sympathizers.
Maoist are making capital of sympathy for safe heaven on the name of justice.
“There is a type of symbiotic relationship between the tribals and Maoists. One need a medium to express theirs grievances, whereas other want a vehicle to advance their interests”.
In this way, by systematically invoking the plight of tribals, Maoists become successful in making tribal heartland theirs safe heaven.
These are the major causes of naxalism in tribal regions and Maoist are making capital of sympathy there.