Basic sentence structure is formed with the help of syntactic terms or constituents. Mainly, they are subject (S), verb (V), object (O), complement (C), and adverbial (A). In such basic sentence structures, subject is used as an initiator of performing action, whereas, object is a destination on which action is targeted. Besides, verb represents different forms of actions, and complements, as well as adverbials play supportive roles.
Role and functions of syntactic terms or elements of sentence
Before to proceed, we need to take a look at the basic constituents of the sentence such as subject, verb, object, complement, and adverbial.
Subject (S) — simple and compound
Verb (V) — main verb, helping verbs
Object (O) — direct and indirect objects
Complement (C) — sC, aC, oC
By using these constituents, following basic sentence structures could be realized..
Basic sentence structures
Here are the major types of sentence structures commonly used in daily expressions.
1. “S +V +O” (subject + verb +object)
I want an advice.
They lit a fire.
We have finished our work.
2. “S +V” (Intransitive verb)
The earth revolves
Someone is talking.
3. “S +V + aC” (aC is adverbial complements)
My parents are living in Los Angeles.
The sun rises in the east.
A chair can’t stand on two legs. Harry is in the garden.
4. “S + V + sC” (sC is subject complements)
He is a gifted student.
The national is so congested.
It is too cold.
Mary seems happy.
5. “S + V + O + A” (A is adverbial
I will finish the book later.
Next Week, I will finish the book.
6. “S + V + O + oC” (oC is object complements)
People made him the king.
The board elected Bob the chairman.
We consider the decision unwise.
7. “S + V + Infinitive”
I want to speak.
He forgot to lock the door.
She hopes to get a first class.
8. “S + V + O + infinitive”
He wanted me to study.
Albert told the child to close the door.
He likes his wife to dress well.
9. “S + V + Gerund”
They must give up drinking and smoking.
He started writing.
I enjoy teaching.
10. “S + V + passive infinitive”
They aspired to be qualified.
Brazil desired to be developed.
11. “S + V + O + Present participle”
They caught him stealing.
She found the baby crying.
12. “S + V +O + adjective”
She washed my shirt clean.
He painted the wall green.
The police set the accused free.
13. “S + V + IO + DO” (indirect object and direct object)
I gifted John a book.
Students told the teacher theirs problem.
14. “S + V + O + Prepositional object”
I gave a football to Joly.
You show the progress report to your mother.
They told their problem to the teacher.
These are some important examples of basic sentence structures in the English language…