Direct and indirect speech

Direct and Indirect speech is the most important part of functional grammar with dynamic and vast subject matter. Likewise, its proper use depends on a set of rules and variety of grammatical terms. So, let’s begin with basic concepts.

Concept clearity of direct and indirect speech

•Generally, we write  the speakers words in the two methods:-

1.Within quotation marks

2.Without quotation marks

Speaker’s actual words or narration

•Within quotation marks

Within quotation marks means reporting as it is without any changes. Such type of speech is written within the quotation marks.

• UN general secretary said, “Our mission is not yet accomplished.”

•In this speech, the speech within the quotation marks is called “Direct speech.”

•Direct in the sense that reporter used words as it is to convey the massage of speaker. Therefore, these are used within the quotation marks.

•The first letter of the direct speech should be in the upper case. Direct speech is also known as narration.

In this way, in the direct speech, there are two parts involved. One is reporting part and other as it is or actual narration.

Every direct speech is made up of two clauses. Reporting part belongs to main clause, whereas speakers part is called subordinating or dependent clause.

Both are joined in the Indirect speech with “That”or also called “that- -nominal clause.”

Indirect speech-basic concepts

•Change from direct speech to indirect speech means change in the form without changing the meaning of speaker.i.e.

•President Trump said,  “I will impose more tariffs.” This is the example of direct speech.

Let’s transform it into Indirect speech. In this speech, there are two parts. One is reporting and other is speakers words. Here, in order to change into Indirect speech we must understand certain rules.

Rules to make Indirect speech

Rules regarding pronoun

•First of all understand the two parts cclearly-Reporting part and speakers part.

•Identify tense of both parts.

•”That” is placed before the speakers words

In the above example, ‘President Trump said’ is the reporting part and it is in the past tense .

“I will impose more tariffs.” is the second part in the future tense.

In this example, there are two types of subject are used.The subject of reporting verb is “third person singular” whereas, subject direct speech is “first person singular”

•Rule states that when there is first person singular or plural comes in the direct speech, then the subject of the direct speech changes as per the subject of the reporting verb or part.

•In the above mentioned example, subject of the direct speech is first person singular, therefore,  it changes according to the subject of “President Trump.”

•President Trump said that he would impose more tariffs.

•In case of second person in the direct speech, it changes according to the object of the reporting verb.

•Example-You said to me ,” You are late.”

•Example-You said to me that I was late.

•But, third person subject remains unchanged in the indirect speech.

•Example-You said to me, “He is abscent.”

•Example -You said me that he was absent.

Rules to change tense

Tense of the direct speech changes according to the tense of reporting speech.

•When the tense of direct speech is simple present and the reporting verb is in the past tense, then the tense of direct speech become simple past.

•In the same way, continuous becomes past continuous and perfect present in the perfect past.

•Example- -World Bank said,  ” Indian growth rate is declining -World Bank said that Indian growth rate was declining.”

•Example -World Bank said, “Indian economy grows better.”–World Bank said that Indian economy grew better.

•Example-World Bank said,  ” Indian economy has noticed better growth.”–World Bank said that Indian economy had noticed better growth.

The subject matter of Direct and Indirect is so vast. It is too difficult to include in the single blog. Remaining portion, I will deal in the upcoming blogs. In the next blog I will  bring for you basics of direct and indirect speech.

As soon as conjunction of time

Adversative coordinating conjunctions

Relative adverbs

Relative pronouns

Functions of preposition

Adverbial complements

Indirect speech of assertive sentences

Direct and indirect objects

Provided that and on condition that

Understanding no sooner than