Before and after conjunctions

“Before and after” are the subordinating conjunctions, used to introduce adverb clause of time to express sequence in two events. Clause introduced by “before” conjunction describes later action; whereas, clause introduced by “after” describes earlier.

After — conjunction of time

It is used to connect two events as per the order and the sequence of time. In such sentences, action of times clause occurs  before the action of main clause.

•I will water the land.(main clause)

•After they finish the process of sowing.(times clause)

It means that I can only water when they finish the process of sowing.

•I will ride the bike after I receive my license.

Tense in times clause

Future tense is generally avoided in the dependent clause. Instead, simple present is used to express future meaning. But, future tense is used in the main clause.

•I will ride the bike after I receive my license. (future + simple present)

•He accepts his mistake after he is convinced by the evidences. (simple present + simple present)

•She purchased a bike after she received her salary. (simple past + simple past)

•He invited his friends after his father had given theirs permission. (simple past + perfect past)

Before — conjunction of time

“Before” is used to connect two events as per the order and the sequence between two actions. In such sentences, action of times clause occurs after the action of main clause.

•I will arrange a car before the train arrives.

•I will arrange a car. (main clause )

•Before the train arrives. (times clause)

•We will leave before it starts raining.

Tense in clause introduced by before

Here as well, future tense is generally avoided in the dependent clause. Instead, simple present is used to express future meaning. But, future tense is used in the main clause.

•I will arrange a car before the train arrives. (future + simple present)

•He exercises in the morning before he leaves for office. (simple present + simple present )

•She had planned well before they left for forest saffari. (perfect past + simple past)

In the “after” times clause, perfect past tense is used in the dependent clause; whereas, in the “before” clause, perfect past is used in the main clause. I hope that you will get better out of the before and after conjunctions…

Relative adverbs

Present perfect continuous tense

Outline of modal verbs

Provided that and on condition that

Conjunction of time and condition

Would have for missed opportunity

Understanding adjective clause

Subordinating clause by when and while

Learning adverb clause of time

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