Basics of direct and indirect speech

As a part of learning endeavor, through this post, you will learn here how to change the subject, tense, & adverbs of direct speech when we transform it into indirect. Flawless use of direct and indirect speech in the any mode of expression is utmost important. Here, I will explain the “Basics of direct and indirect speech” in the easiest way .

Rules for transformation–direct to indirect speech.

•Change in the pronouns of indirect speech

•When the subject of direct speech in the quotation marks is first person -I, we, my, our etc.

•Then, it is changed according to the subject of the reporting verb. For example–

•Xi Jinpig said, “I will consider to impose more tariffs.

•In this sentence, in the direct speech, there is first person singular subject and subject of reporting verb is third person singular.

In this context, according to the rules, subject of the direct speech changes according to the subject of the reporting verb. Thereby, indirect speech would be –

•Xi Jinpig said that he would consider to impose more tarrifs. Let’s see some useful examples.

•The man said, “I am the witness of that earthquake. “–The man said that he was the witness of that earthquake.

•John said,  “I am so busy to talk to you.”-John said that he was so busy to talk to him.

•When  the subject of the direct speech is in the second person, then in the indirect speech, it changes according to the object of the reporting verb.

•Ronny said to me,  “You are so hard working.” In this sentence, the subject of the direct speech is in second person form.

Therefore, it gets changed according to the object of the reporting verb.

Here, object of the reporting verb is “me” Hence, the subject of the direct speech would be ‘I’

•Ronny said to me that I was so hard working.

•My father said,” you are so careless.”–My father said to me that I was so careless.

But,in case of third person as a subject of direct speech, no change is required to make indirect speech.

Also, there is no need to change any name as well.

•Change in the tense

•First of all, we must not forget a thing that change in the direct speech should be in consistent with reporting verb.

•In Short, tense of direct speech changes according to the tense of reporting verb.

•When the reporting verb is in the present or future tense, then there is no need to change the tense of direct speech.

But, when the reporting verb is in the past tense, then the tense of direct speech changes accordingly.

•Simple present to simple past.

•When the direct speech is in the simple present, then the tense is changed to simple past in the indirect speech.

• Direct speech -Student said, “Teacher teaches writing skills. ”

•Indirect speech -Student said that teacher teached writing skills.

•Present continuous to past continuous

• Direct speech -He said, “They are working continuously. ”

•Indirect speech -He said that they were working continuously.

•Perfect present to past perfect

• Direct speech-Emma said, “I have completed my assignment.”

•Indirect speech -Emma said that she had completed her assignment.

•Present continuous perfect to past continuous perfect

• Direct speech -She said.”I have been exercising since last week. ”

•Indirect speech -She said that she had been exercising since the week before.

•Past to past changes

When the tense of direct speech is in the past tense, then we will notice following changes in the indirect speech.

•past simple to past perfect.

•Direct speech-Matt said, “I did better job.”

•Indirect speech– Matt said that he had done better job.

•Past continuous to past perfect continuous

•Direct speech- Henry said,  “I was digging a hole.”

•Indirect speech-Henry said that he had been digging a hole.

Rules for change in time and place adverbs

Changes in the adverbs of time and place in the direct speech takes place in the following way-

•These-those,

•This -that,

•These-those,

•Now-then,

•Ago- -before,

•Today- -that day, the same day,

•Yesterday –the previous day, the day before,

•Tonight– that night,

•Tomorrow –the next day, the following day,

•Last night–the previous night, the night before,

For the upcoming time, “following”is used, whereas for the passed time “previous” is used.

These are some useful rules. I hope, these will help you in your preparation.

Adverbial complements

Conjunctions for alternative choices

Provided that and on condition that

Explanation of Conditional sentences.

Corrective measures for bleeding biodiversity

Coral reef ecosystems

Indirect speech of assertive sentences

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